Most people need a work permit to work in Canada. There are 2 types of work permits: open work permits and employer-specific work permits.

Open work permits

An open work permit allows you to work for any employer in Canada.
You can only get an open work permit in specific situations, for example if you are:

Are an international student who graduated from a designated learning institution and are eligible for the Post-Graduation Work Permit Program
Are a student who’s no longer able to meet the costs of your studies (destitute student)
Applied for permanent residence in Canada
Are a dependent family member of someone who applied for permanent residence
Are the spouse or common-law partner of a skilled worker or international student

Employer-specific work permits

An employer-specific work permit allows you to work according to the conditions on your work permit, which include:
The name of the employer you can work for
How long you can work
The location where you can work

A Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) is a document that an employer in Canada may need to get before hiring a foreign worker.
A positive LMIA will show that there is a need for a foreign worker to fill the job. It will also show that no Canadian worker is available to do the job. A positive LMIA is sometimes called a confirmation letter.

Once an employer gets the LMIA, the worker can apply for a work permit.
To apply for a work permit, a worker needs:
A job offer letter
A contract
A copy of the LMIA
The LMIA number

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